In 1886, German architect Mies van der Rohe famously declared that "less is more". In 2019, not to be outdone, American entertainer MattySmokes420 responded with: "like and subscribe for more great content!" Both men make compelling arguments, but I'm starting to think that less is becoming a more important option in this Age of Great Content we've found ourselves in. Mies van der Rohe was a pioneer of modernist architecture, which was also a cultural precursor to the minimalist art movement of the 20th century. In the years since, minimalism has evolved into a variety of other art forms and areas of life. Nowadays we watch as Marie Kondo, a petite and joyful Japanese woman, preaches to her Netflix audience to remove all the possessions that don't "spark joy" in one's life. Clean up your room and throw things out; this is minimalism in 2020.
Looking back to its origins as an artistic philosophy in the 1950s, minimalism was an attempt to "expose the essence, essentials or identity of a subject through eliminating all non-essential forms, features or concepts", according to an art critic named Wikipedia. In the context of American art, it was partly a response to the abstract expressionism movement of the mid-twentieth century. Abstract expressionism was popularized through artists like Pollock, Rothko, and de Kooning who eschewed form and objectivity in favour of the surreal. It was dynamic, spontaneous art that was often overflowing with emotion and energy. As far as I understand it, these artists wanted to abandon traditional composition in order to evoke their subconscious representation of a subject. Jay Meuser, an American abstract expressionist, wrote that "it is far better to capture the glorious spirit of the sea than to paint all of its tiny ripples". If the purpose of abstract expressionism is to represent boundless emotion, then perhaps minimalism is about the boundaries themselves. And that, I think, is the crux of minimalism conceptually: erecting boundaries and then thinking about your relationship with them.
The artists of the abstract expressionist movement sought to express their personal emotions through their paintings. As such, each work of art is integrally tied to its creator. Art created to serve this purpose can be viewed as narcissistic or pretentious, but as much as these artists have imbued themselves into their work, the observer still has their own subjective reaction to the art,
A painting is not a picture of an experience. It is the experience.
— Mark Rothko
Rothko sought to cultivate a personal experience to the observer, but it is still hard to separate him from his work completely. Each brush stroke was produced by his hands. When you see Rothko's bright, colourful rectangles slowly transform over the years into darker and darker shades, ultimately culminating in a work with no colour at all, its hard not to think of his suicide just a year after this work was painted. It is this context, and the intimate focus on the artist that minimalist art strives to eliminate. How can an artist remove themselves from the experience of the art? How can an artist create something with no meaning at all?
Minimalism is all about literal, physical presence. It is characterized by extreme simplicity and a reduction of any personal and referential elements so that only the objective, purely visual parts remain. Expressionism, and most art in general, is about representing some feature of reality, or visualizing human experiences like emotion and feeling. The minimalist artist seeks to remove any external references at all, so that the viewer is effected only by what's in front of them. The material, form, and location is the entirety of the art. Because of this, minimalist art most often takes the form of sculpture rather than painting. And it is common for this art to be manufactured in bulk, or produced by automated machinery; further removing the artist from their creation.
Now, I can certainly appreciate this style of art and the virtues it represents. A metal cube sitting on the floor in front of you can be seen as a very pure form of beauty; the art does not try to imitate something its not, and in that way it is truthful. It is easy to understand it simply by comparison to movements such as abstract expressionism. Minimalist art was created as an antithesis to the emotionally driven art that preceded it. If the point of art is to evoke feelings and start discussions, then I think minimalist art, as boring as it may seem at first glance, fits this criteria still.
Minimalism's popularity grew throughout the 1960s and 1970s, and its core tenets have spread to other disciplines and facets of life. I would resist saying that minimalist art actually influenced these other areas like music, architecture, software, and lifestyle, because I think it is more to do with the reasons why minimalist art resonates with us in the first place. When we see a neat tiling of bricks on a wooden floor, or a tidy, all-white spacious room with white chairs and white shelves, or a clean and simple user interface on a smartphone app...we are drawn to the simplicity and the clear distinctions. I think its deeply rooted in the fact that these straight lines and neat symmetries are not found in nature. They are of human creation and their inarguable logic is comforting to us. Like the apes in Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey being captivated, and inspired, by the monolith, minimalist design can open up possibilities to us and teach us something about the essence of things. Maybe a minimalist lifestyle can have similar benefits.
In Digital Minimalism, Cal Newport describes a healthier approach to technology, and our use of it, that is inspired by minimalist ideologies. The book provides guidelines for improving our personal use of technology, specifically the use of internet-based entertainment, social media, and video games. In a broader sense, Newport wanted to address the consequences of ubiquitous connection and endless content that is now possible thanks to smartphones and the internet.
It was interesting to read this book during the Coronavirus outbreak, where Canada and the rest of the world has been placed in a lockdown. Almost everyone has been living in social isolation in their homes; the only face-to-face contact is with whoever you live with, which may be nobody. Newport spends time looking at the fundamental differences between connection, which is digital interactions and communication with others, and conversation, that is real, physical interaction. Anyone that has been subject to this lockdown over the past couple months has become intimately aware of these differences, or at least aware of the negative effects. Coronavirus has forced upon us what may be the greatest global social experiment in the history of our species, and it will be interesting to see the results of this experiment.
Connection is any form of digital interaction with others. The most basic of which is something like the Facebook "Like" button or Instagram's "Heart", which is literally a single bit of transmitted information and therefore the absolute smallest amount of interaction possible between two people. Text messaging, whether through SMS, comments, or e-mail would be the next "level" of interaction we use frequently, which everyone understands is fairly low-bandwidth as well. It is hard to convey emotion with just words, particularly when you do not message the other person frequently (although anyone in a relationship can probably infer a lot of things when their partner sends them a "K"). Newport argues that connection is an insufficient and vapid substitute for true conversation. He points to several studies conducted on the effects of heavy social media use that generally correlate this behaviour with loneliness, lower satisfaction in one's own life, and less overall happiness. Naturally, if social media causes such a detriment to one's mental health, the question arises as to why is it so popular in the first place? I think Newport's explanation can be reduced to two primary reasons; the first is concerned with why we are so willing to replace real conversation with digital connection:
Humans are naturally biased toward activities that require less energy in the short term, even if it’s more harmful in the long term—so we end up texting our sibling instead of calling them on the phone, or liking a picture of a friend’s new baby instead of stopping by to visit.
— Newport, pg. 185
I think this shift towards "easier" forms of communication to blatantly evident today. The decline of phone calls in favour of texting (in my generation at least) is a primary example. Social media provides ways of interacting with your friends and family from the comfort of your own home, or while on the bus on your phone, or anywhere really. It is so convenient and accessible that we can feel, at times, more connected to the people in our lives—but Newport believes that by replacing genuine physical time spent together with these digital forms of communication, we are losing out on the real benefits of social interaction.
The second reason that we love social media is that it is has been explicitly designed to be addicting; the more time we spend using Facebook's services, the more money they get. There is already a plethora of research and information available that explains exactly how these tech companies build these addicting feedback loops into their products, so I won't go into detail here. If you are interested a google search will yield plenty of results, or this podcast episode with the author Cal Newport is a great explanation of how social media works.
Unfortunately, the negative effects of ubiquitous technology do not stop at our social lives, according to Newport. This constant connectivity and consumption has a major effect on our psychological welfare; always having stimulus from other outside sources means we are never truly alone with ourselves anymore. Newport claims that these moments of solitude are vital,
For one thing, when you avoid solitude, you miss out on the positive things it brings you: the ability to clarify hard problems, to regulate your emotions, to build moral courage, and to strengthen relationships
— Newport, pg. 136
I really believe in the importance of alone time, especially in how it can help to clarify whats important to you. When you give your mind the space to breathe, where your not processing anything and there is no distracting stimuli, the things that are important to you (or it?) will naturally surface to your consciousness. If you start thinking about something for no reason, there's probably a reason you should be thinking about it. Moments like these I tend to value, and I place a lot of weight on the decisions I make during these times.
Newport is careful to note that this ability to keep yourself distracted is not a new problem that Silicon Valley has created. There has always been ways of keeping yourself mindlessly entertained, and ever since advertising became a part of entertainment, the "attention economy" has been figuring out ways of getting more and more of your eyeball time. What has changed is how pervasive this influence has become and how its infiltrated every corner of our daily life,
Erecting barriers against the existential is not new—before YouTube we had (and still have) mindless television and heavy drinking to help avoid deeper questions—but the advanced technologies of the twenty-first-century attention economy are particularly effective at this task.
— Newport, pg. 217
The presence of smartphones and devices that we can carry on our person at all times has given us the previously unimaginable ability to access...well...literally everything? If you don't see how insane that is then maybe you were born after 2000 and its just expected for you (Shouldn't you be making a TikTok right now or something?). Anyways, smartphones are, without a doubt, very powerful tools we've been given and I think its right that Newport is thinking about how we can properly manage this power without losing ourselves. It may sound hyperbolic, but I think its necessary. Just as art minimalism was a necessary response to the sensory overload of abstract expressionist art, so to must we respond to a world that claims it has given us all we ever wanted, right in our pocket.
So, how exactly does Newport suggest we survive in this brave new world? Its quite simple; Newport wants everyone to become Amish, they figured out this stuff a long time ago. Just kidding, but Newport does spend some time lauding the Amish for their altogether quite reasonable approach to technology. Most people assume that the Amish are strictly opposed to any technology at all, but it turns out they actually do adopt some new tools and technology, whenever they collectively agree that the tool is good:
The Amish, it turns out, do something that’s both shockingly radical and simple in our age of impulsive and complicated consumerism: they start with the things they value most, then work backward to ask whether a given new technology performs more harm than good with respect to these values.
— Newport, pg. 77
This sort of value-driven adoption is closely aligned with what Newport actually suggests we do to curb our technology use. This lifestyle is what he calls digital minimalism:
A philosophy of technology use in which you focus your online time on a small number of carefully selected and optimized activities that strongly support things you value, and then happily miss out on everything else.
— Newport, pg. 48
In other words, use technology only when it benefits what you personally value. Use it as a tool for life, not a substitute for it. Its certainly easier said then done because there are so many reasons we use technology and so many ways its become integrated into our lives already. But Newport thinks its vitally important to at least become aware of these things. The Googles and Facebooks of the world have every intention to take over all aspects of your life; I've wrote previously about how their entire business model is predicated on getting your data and attention. In an economy like this, we must erect boundaries and protect ourselves. This is what digital minimalism is, a way of saying no.
Newport goes into a lot of detail around how to become a digital minimalist, and what he recommends you do with all the free time you're going to suddenly have. Overall, I thought it was a very thought provoking read despite being overly prescriptive at times. There was also a sense of "look at all the great ways I spend my time" kind of vibe at points as well, which came off as a little pretentious. But in general, what Newport is talking about in digital minimalism is really important today. Minimalism has been around a long time, in different forms, and it is vitally important today to figure out how to live simply. I will end with a succinct explanation of how Newport suggests we look at each individual technology in our life, when deciding whether it is necessary or not. I think it would be good to keep this in mind.
[Does the technology:]
- Serve something you deeply value (offering some benefit is not enough).
- Be the best way to use technology to serve this value (if it’s not, replace it with something better).
- Have a role in your life that is constrained with a standard operating procedure that specifies when and how you use it.
— Newport, pg. 107